GG is an HPSG for German developed at the DFKI Language Technology Lab, Saarbrücken, Germany, as part of the DELPH-IN consortium. The grammar was first published in June 2006.

Development was funded by the German Ministry for Education, Science, Research and Technology ("Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF)"), as part of the projects DISCO (ITW 9002 0), Verbmobil (01 701 V0), Whiteboard (01 IW 002), Quetal (01 IW C02), Collate (01 IN A01 B), and Checkpoint. The grammar is currently developed by Berthold Crysmann.

The grammar is released under the LGPLLR, a version of the LGPL adapted to linguistic resources. See the above link or LICENSE for details.

Online Demo

Online Demo



Past releases of the grammar are available as .tar.gz archives:


The source code of the current version of the grammar is managed with Subversion. The repository is located at (anonymous read access) and (read and write access; requires project membership). It can be browsed with the subversion repository browser.

For anonymous read access, you can check out the main development directory with the following command:

svn checkout gg

If you want to have read and write access, you first need to register an account and then apply for project membership at In this case, you should use the following command to check out the main development directory:

svn checkout --username <user> gg


The grammar is intended to be used with systems that can run TDL-style grammars, such as the LKB (Copestake 2001) or PET (Callmeier 2000), and can be used for parsing (LKB & PET) and generation (LKB).


In the LKB, you can load the grammar via the script file lkb/script.

We encourage the use of the lexical database (lexdb) by Benjamin Waldron, which is distributed as part of the LKB. See the DELPH-IN Wiki for installation instructions. We recommend the following settings for *lexdb-params*: ((:dbname "gg") (:mode "gg")), to disable sortal restrictions.


The grammar files come with a Makefile to facilitate installation: Run make to compile .grm files for the Pet runtime parser cheap. Make sure the flop preprocessor is in your PATH.

  • german-unfill.grm
    • binary grammar file with unfilling (no packing)
    • suitable for HoG
  • german-pack.grm
    • packing, no unfilling
    • suitable for HoG, but interoperability is not that well tested
    • symbolic link to german.grm, loads definition for packing restrictor in pet/german-pack.set
  • german.grm
    • no packing, no unfilling
    • slow, suitable for HoG


Documentation for the grammar can be found in the literature. Publications particularly relevant to this version of the grammar are:

  • Müller & Kasper (2000)
  • Crysmann (2003)
  • Crysmann (2005a)
  • Crysmann (2005b)

The grammar uses revised German spelling conventions, at least as far as the ss/ß rules are concerned. Support for the old spelling conventions will be added in the future. The grammar and the lexicon are encoded in UTF-8.

Known Issues

Owing to a bug in Allegro CLIM, direct input of 8bit characters from the LKB GUI is not possible. As a workaround, you can use either TeX or HTML syntax, or invoke the parser from the Lisp prompt '(do-parse-tty "Am Anfang war das Wort.")'.

See TODO for grammar related known issues.


  • Crysmann, Berthold. 2003. On the Efficient Implementation of German Verb Placement in HPSG. In Proceedings of RANLP 2003. Borovets, Bulgaria. pp. 112-116.
  • Crysmann, Berthold. 2005a. Relative Clause Extraposition in German: An Efficient and Portable Implementation. Research on Language and Computation. vol. 3(1). pp. 61-82.
  • Crysmann, Berthold. 2005b. Syncretism in German: a unified approach to underspecification, indeterminacy, and likeness of case. In Müller, Stefan (ed.), Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar. pp. 91-107. CSLI Publications, Stanford.
  • Müller, Stefan & Kasper, Walter. 2000. HPSG Analysis of German. In Wahlster, Wolfgang (ed.), Verbmobil: Foundations of Speech-to-Speech Translation. pp. 238-253. Springer, Berlin.

These references are also available in BibTeX format.

Last modified 7 years ago Last modified on 07/20/09 13:18:42